Great Britain: Victoria – 1837 AD – 1901 AD – 1 Penny 1897 AD KM # 790

Great Britain: Victoria - 1837 AD - 1901 AD - 1 Penny 1897 AD KM # 790 (obv.)

Great Britain: Victoria – 1837 AD – 1901 AD – 1 Penny 1897 AD KM # 790 (obv.)

Great Britain: Victoria - 1837 AD - 1901 AD - 1 Penny 1897 AD KM # 790 (rev.)

Great Britain: Victoria – 1837 AD – 1901 AD – 1 Penny 1897 AD KM # 790 (rev.)

Great Britain: A Brief History

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, located off the northwest coast of the European continent, has an area of 94,227sq. mi. (244,820 sq. km.). Capital: London. The economy is based on industrial activity and trading. Machinery, motor vehicles, chemicals, and textile yarns and fabrics are exported.

After the departure of the Romans, who brought Britain into a more active relationship with Europe, it fell prey to invaders from Scandinavia and the Low Countries who drove the original Britons into Scotland and Wales, and established a profusion of kingdoms that finally united in the 11th century under the Danish King Canute. Norman rule, following the conquest of 1066, stimulated the devel-opment of those institutions, which have since distinguished British life. Henry VIII (1509-47) turned Britain from continental adven-turing and faced it to the sea – a decision that made Britain a world power from the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). Strengthened by the Industrial Revolution and the defeat of Napoleon, 19th century Britain turned to the remote parts of the world and established a colonial empire of such extent and prosperity that the world has never seen its like. World Wars I and II sealed the fate of the Empire and relegated Britain to a lesser role in world affairs by draining her resources and inaugurating a worldwide movement toward national self-determination in her former colonies. [1] SCWC 1801-1900

Rulers

George III, 1760-1820
George IV, 1820-1830
William IV, 1830-1837
Victoria, 1837-1901

Mint Marks (Commencing 1874)

H – Heaton
KN – King’s Norton

Monetary System (Until 1970)

4 Farthings = 1 Penny
12 Pence = 1 Shilling
20 Shillings = 1 Pound (Sovereign)
21 Shillings = 1 Guinea

Frequently accepted speech colloquialisms:

“Ha’penny” (say: Hayp-ni) = 1/2 Penny
“Tanner” = 6 Pence
“Bob” = 1 Shilling
“Half a Crown” (Half a Dollar) = 2 Shillings 6 Pence
“Dollar” = 5 Shillings
“Half a Quid” = 10 Shillings
“Half a Guinea” = 10 Shillings 6 Pence
“Quid” = 1 Pound
“Tenner” = 10 Pounds
“Pony” = 20 Pounds

Queen Alexandrina Victoria (Empress of India)

Reign: 1837 – 1901 AD

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 1 Penny from the era of Queen Victoria the  monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland & the Empress of India.

Obverse:  Victoria veiled bust left [center], Latin: “VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP” [around]. Translation: “Victoria by the Grace of God, Queen of the British territories, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India.”

Reverse: Britannia (ancient term for Great Britain, female personification of the Island) seated right holding shield and trident [center], Denomination [around], Date [below]

Mint: 

Date: 1897

Mintage: 20,757,000

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German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 1/2 Heller 1906 AD KM # 6

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 1/2 Heller 1906 AD KM # 6 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 1/2 Heller 1906 AD KM # 6 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 1/2 Heller 1906 AD KM # 6 (rev.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 1/2 Heller 1906 AD KM # 6 (rev.)

German East Africa (Deutsch Ostafrika): A Brief History

German East Africa (Tanganyika), located on the coast of east-central Africa between British East Africa (now Kenya) and Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique), had an area of 362,284 sq. mi. (938,216 sq. km.) and a population of about 6 mil-lion. Capital: Dar es Salaam. Chief products prior to German con-trol were ivory and slaves; after German control, sisal, coffee, and rubber. Germany acquired control of the area by treaties with coastal chiefs in 1884, established it as a protectorate in 1891, and proclaimed it the Colony of German East Africa in 1897. After World War I, Tanganyika was entrusted to Great Britain as a League of Nations mandate, and after World War II as a United Nations trust territory. Tanganyika became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth on Dec. 9, 1961. Coins dated up until 1902 were issued by the German East Africa Com-pany. From 1904 onwards, the government issued coins.  [1] SCWC 1901-2000

Wihelm II – (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht von Preußen; English: Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia)

Reign: 1888 – 1918 AD

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 1/2 Heller from the era of Wihelm II, the last Emperor (Kaiser) of Germany and King of Prussia.

Obverse:  Crown with Ribbon. (Imperial Monogram) [above], date [below]

Reverse: Denomination (within Wreath).

Mint: Hamburg

Date: 1906

Mintage: 6,000,000

 

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 1/2 Heller 1905 AD KM # 6

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 1/2 Heller 1905 AD KM # 6 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 1/2 Heller 1905 AD KM # 6 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 1/2 Heller 1905 AD KM # 6 (rev.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 1/2 Heller 1905 AD KM # 6 (rev.)

German East Africa (Deutsch Ostafrika): A Brief History

German East Africa (Tanganyika), located on the coast of east-central Africa between British East Africa (now Kenya) and Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique), had an area of 362,284 sq. mi. (938,216 sq. km.) and a population of about 6 mil-lion. Capital: Dar es Salaam. Chief products prior to German con-trol were ivory and slaves; after German control, sisal, coffee, and rubber. Germany acquired control of the area by treaties with coastal chiefs in 1884, established it as a protectorate in 1891, and proclaimed it the Colony of German East Africa in 1897. After World War I, Tanganyika was entrusted to Great Britain as a League of Nations mandate, and after World War II as a United Nations trust territory. Tanganyika became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth on Dec. 9, 1961. Coins dated up until 1902 were issued by the German East Africa Com-pany. From 1904 onwards, the government issued coins.  [1] SCWC 1901-2000

Wihelm II – (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht von Preußen; English: Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia)

Reign: 1888 – 1918 AD

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 1/2 Heller from the era of Wihelm II, the last Emperor (Kaiser) of Germany and King of Prussia.

Obverse:  Crown with Ribbon. (Imperial Monogram) [above], date [below]

Reverse: Denomination (within Wreath).

Mint: Berlin

Date: 1905

Mintage: 7,192,123

 

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 1/2 Heller 1904 AD KM # 6

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 1/2 Heller 1904 AD KM # 6 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 1/2 Heller 1904 AD KM # 6 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 1/2 Heller 1904 AD KM # 6 (rev.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 1/2 Heller 1904 AD KM # 6 (rev.)

 

German East Africa (Deutsch Ostafrika): A Brief History

German East Africa (Tanganyika), located on the coast of east-central Africa between British East Africa (now Kenya) and Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique), had an area of 362,284 sq. mi. (938,216 sq. km.) and a population of about 6 mil-lion. Capital: Dar es Salaam. Chief products prior to German con-trol were ivory and slaves; after German control, sisal, coffee, and rubber. Germany acquired control of the area by treaties with coastal chiefs in 1884, established it as a protectorate in 1891, and proclaimed it the Colony of German East Africa in 1897. After World War I, Tanganyika was entrusted to Great Britain as a League of Nations mandate, and after World War II as a United Nations trust territory. Tanganyika became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth on Dec. 9, 1961. Coins dated up until 1902 were issued by the German East Africa Com-pany. From 1904 onwards, the government issued coins.  [1] SCWC 1901-2000

Wihelm II – (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht von Preußen; English: Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia)

Reign: 1888 – 1918 AD

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 1/2 Heller from the era of Wihelm II, the last Emperor (Kaiser) of Germany and King of Prussia.

Obverse:  Crown with Ribbon. (Imperial Monogram) [above], date[below]

Reverse: Denomination (within Wreath).

Mint: Berlin

Date: 1904

Mintage: 1,201,000

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 10 Heller 1908 AD KM # 12

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 10 Heller 1908 AD KM # 12 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 10 Heller 1908 AD KM # 12 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 10 Heller 1908 AD KM # 12 (rev.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 10 Heller 1908 AD KM # 12 (rev.)

German East Africa (Deutsch Ostafrika): A Brief History

German East Africa (Tanganyika), located on the coast of east-central Africa between British East Africa (now Kenya) and Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique), had an area of 362,284 sq. mi. (938,216 sq. km.) and a population of about 6 mil-lion. Capital: Dar es Salaam. Chief products prior to German con-trol were ivory and slaves; after German control, sisal, coffee, and rubber. Germany acquired control of the area by treaties with coastal chiefs in 1884, established it as a protectorate in 1891, and proclaimed it the Colony of German East Africa in 1897. After World War I, Tanganyika was entrusted to Great Britain as a League of Nations mandate, and after World War II as a United Nations trust territory. Tanganyika became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth on Dec. 9, 1961. Coins dated up until 1902 were issued by the German East Africa Com-pany. From 1904 onwards, the government issued coins.  [1] SCWC 1901-2000

Wihelm II – (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht von Preußen; English: Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia)

Reign: 1888 – 1918 AD

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 10 Heller from the era of Wihelm II, the last Emperor (Kaiser) of Germany and King of Prussia.

Obverse:  Center hole divides date, Crown with Ribbon. (Imperial Monogram) [above], legend [below]

Reverse: Center hole divides denomination (within Wreath).

Mint: Hamburg

Date: 1908

Mintage: –

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 10 Heller 1911 AD KM # 12

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 10 Heller 1911 AD KM # 12 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 10 Heller 1911 AD KM # 12 (obv.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II - 1888 AD - 1918 AD - 10 Heller 1911 AD KM # 12 (rev.)

German East Africa: Wihelm II – 1888 AD – 1918 AD – 10 Heller 1911 AD KM # 12 (rev.)

German East Africa (Deutsch Ostafrika): A Brief History

German East Africa (Tanganyika), located on the coast of east-central Africa between British East Africa (now Kenya) and Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique), had an area of 362,284 sq. mi. (938,216 sq. km.) and a population of about 6 mil-lion. Capital: Dar es Salaam. Chief products prior to German con-trol were ivory and slaves; after German control, sisal, coffee, and rubber. Germany acquired control of the area by treaties with coastal chiefs in 1884, established it as a protectorate in 1891, and proclaimed it the Colony of German East Africa in 1897. After World War I, Tanganyika was entrusted to Great Britain as a League of Nations mandate, and after World War II as a United Nations trust territory. Tanganyika became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth on Dec. 9, 1961. Coins dated up until 1902 were issued by the German East Africa Com-pany. From 1904 onwards, the government issued coins.  [1] SCWC 1901-2000

Wihelm II – (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht von Preußen; English: Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia) 

Reign: 1888 – 1918 AD

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 10 Heller from the era of Wihelm II, the last Emperor (Kaiser) of Germany and King of Prussia.

Obverse:  Center hole divides date, Crown with Ribbon. (Imperial Monogram) [above], legend [below]

Reverse: Center hole divides denomination (within Wreath).

Mint: Berlin

Date: 1911

Mintage: 500,000

Sachal Sarmast – Kaafi 2

Sachal Sarmast - Kaafi 2

Sachal Sarmast – Kaafi 2

Sachal Sarmast – Kaafi 2

Maedri dil vich yaar,  patt diyaan peenghaan paiyaan vo

Aapay jhootay aao jhootavey, dainda loday lakh hazaar

Maedri dil vich yaar,  patt diyaan peenghaan paiyaan vo

Main te dilbar jhoota ditra, keeta sahelian singhaar

Maedri dil vich yaar,  patt diyaan peenghaan paiyaan vo

Jhootay uttay yaar sajan de, hovna khabardaar

Maedri dil vich yaar,  patt diyaan peenghaan paiyaan vo

Pair jhootay de mohkam dharna, rehna be-ikhtiyaar

Maedri dil vich yaar,  patt diyaan peenghaan paiyaan vo

Saray jhootay Sachu aap sahi ker, thi aap kanon bezaar

Maedri dil vich yaar,  patt diyaan peenghaan paiyaan vo

Maedri – Meri

Patt – Resham

Peenghaan – Jhoola

Jhootavey, Loday – Jhoolna

Ditra – Dena

Mohkam – Mazboot

Dharna – Rakhna

Thi – Hona

Guru Nanak – Ashlok 2

Guru Nanak - Ashlok 2

Guru Nanak – Ashlok 2

Guru Nanak – Ashlok 2

Raajay, raiyat, sikdaar koi na rehsi o;

Hatt, pattan, bajaar hukmi dehsi o;

Pakay bank doaar moorakh jaanay aapnay;

Darb bharay bhandaar, reetay ik khanay;

Taazi ruth tukhaar haathi paakhray;

Bagh milakh ghar baar, kithay syaapne;

Tanboo, palang nawaar, saraichay laalti;

Nanak sach daataar, shanakth qudrati.

Raajay – Hukmaraan, Badshah

Raiyat –  Jin per hukmarani ki jaye

Sikdaar – Sik, Shik (division) ka afsar

Hatt – Dukaan

Bajaar – Bazaar

Hukmi – Hukam se

Dehsi – Girna

Bank – Aali Shaan

Doaar – Darwaza

Moorakh – Be waqoof

Darb – Maal o Daulat

Bhandaar – Gharelo ashyaa rakhne ki jaga

Reetay – Khatam hona

Khanay – Aik pal

Taazi – Arbi Asil Ghora

Ruth – Ghora Gari

Paakhray – Zarah Baktar

Milakh – Milkiyat

Syaapne – Mashoor hona

Saraichay – Sarai

Laalti – Laal, bacha

Daataar – Daata, Denay wala

Baba Farid Ganj Shakar – Bait 2

Baba Farid Ganj Shakar - Bait 2

Baba Farid Ganj Shakar – Bait 2

Baba Farid Ganj Shakar – Bait 2

Dar darweshi gakhari, chalan dunya bhatt;

Banh uthai potli kithay vanjaan ghatt.

Dar – Darwaza

Gakhari – Mushkil

Bhatt – Ki Tarha

Banh – Bandh Ker

Potli – Gathari

Vanjaan – Jaon

Ghatt – Daal Ker

Baba Farid Ganj Shakar – Bait 1

Baba Farid Ganj Shakar - Bait 1

Baba Farid Ganj Shakar – Bait 1

Baba Farid Ganj Shakar – Bait 1

Jitt vihaaray dhan vari sahay liye likha;

Malak jay kanni sunenda munh dikha lay aa;

Jind nimaani kadhye haddan koon karka;

Sahay likhay, na chalni, jindu koon samjha;

Jind wohti, maran varr, le jaasi parna;

Apan hathi jol ke keen gal lagay dhaa,

Walon nikki pur salamat kinni na sunni aa;

Faridaa kirri pawandi ee, khara nah aap muhaa.

Jitt – Jiss

Vihaaray – Roz

Dhan – Aurat, Biwi

Vari – Shaadi hona

Sahay – Shaadi ki tareekh

Malak – Maut ka Farishta

Kanni – Kaanon se

Jind – Jaan, Zindagi

Nimaani – Bechari

Haddan – Hadhion

Karka – Tor ke

Chalni – Tull sakti

Koon – Ko

Maran – Maut

Varr – Khawand

Parna – Shadi ker ke

Apan – Apnay

Jol ke – Rukhsat ker ke

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