India (Mughal Empire): Muhammad Humayun – 937 – 947 AH (1530 – 1540 AD) – Anonymous Falus 942 AH (1535 AD)
October 9, 2011 2 Comments
Mughal Empire: A Brief History
The Lodi Sultanate of Delhi was conquered by Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, a Chagatai Turk descended from Tamerlane, in 1525AD. His son, Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun, lost the new empire in a series of battles with the Bihari Afghan Sher Shah, who founded the short-lived Suri dynasty. Humayun, with the assistance of the Emperor of Persia, recovered his kingdom from Sher Shah’s successors in 1555AD. He did not long enjoy the fruits of victory for his fatal fall down his library steps brought his teenage son Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar to the throne in the following year. During Akbar’s long reign of a half century, the Mughal Empire was firmly established throughout much of North India. Under Akbar’s son and grandson, the emperors Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir and Shihab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan, the state reached its apogee and art, culture and commerce flourished.
One of the major achievements of the Mughal government was the establishment of a universal silver currency, based on the rupee, a coin of 11.6 grams and as close to pure silver content as the metallurgy of the time was capable of attaining. Supplementary coins were the copper Dam and gold Mohur. The values of these coin denominations were nominally fixed at 40 Dams to 1 Rupee, and 8 Rupees to 1 Mohur; however, market forces determined actual exchange rates.
The maximum expansion of the geographical area under direct Mughal rule was achieved during the reign of Aurangzeb Alamgir. By his death in 1707AD, the whole peninsula, with minor exceptions, the whole subcontinent of India owed fealty to the Mughal emperor.
Aurangzeb’s wars, lasting decades, upset the stability and prosperity of the kingdom. The internal dissension and rebellion which resulted brought the eclipse of the empire in succeeding reigns. The Mughal monetary system, especially the silver rupee, supplanted most local currencies throughout India. The number of Mughal mints rose sharply and direct central control declined, so that by the time of the emperor Shah Alam II, many nominally Mughal mints served independent states. The common element in all these coinage issues was the presence of the Mughal emperor’s name and titles on the obverse.  SCWC 1601-1700
Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun
Reign: 937 – 947 AH (1530 – 1540 AD)
The coin pictured above is a is an Anonymus Falus from the era of Muhammad Humayun, the second ruler of the Mughal Empire.
Obverse: Hazrat – Zarb Dar Al Mulk Delhi
Reverse: Fi Tareekh 942 AH (coin stuck in 942 AH)
Date: 942 AH (1535 AD) (rev.)