India (Mughal Empire): Muhammad Humayun – 937 – 947 AH (1530 – 1540 AD) – Anonymous Falus 942 AH (1535 AD)

India (Mughal Empire): Muhammad Humayun - 937 - 947 AH (1530 - 1540 AD) - Anonymous Falus 942 AH (1535 AD)  (obv.)

India (Mughal Empire): Muhammad Humayun - 937 - 947 AH (1530 - 1540 AD) - Anonymous Falus 942 AH (1535 AD) (obv.)

India (Mughal Empire): Muhammad Humayun - 937 - 947 AH (1530 - 1540 AD) - Anonymous Falus 942 AH (1535 AD)  (rev.)

India (Mughal Empire): Muhammad Humayun - 937 - 947 AH (1530 - 1540 AD) - Anonymous Falus 942 AH (1535 AD) (rev.)

Mughal Empire: A Brief History

The Lodi Sultanate of Delhi was conquered by Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, a Chagatai Turk descended from Tamerlane, in 1525AD. His son, Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun, lost the new empire in a series of battles with the Bihari Afghan Sher Shah, who founded the short-lived Suri dynasty. Humayun, with the assistance of the Emperor of Persia, recovered his kingdom from Sher Shah’s successors in 1555AD. He did not long enjoy the fruits of victory for his fatal fall down his library steps brought his teenage son Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar to the throne in the following year. During Akbar’s long reign of a half century, the Mughal Empire was firmly established throughout much of North India. Under Akbar’s son and grandson, the emperors Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir and Shihab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan, the state reached its apogee and art, culture and commerce flourished.

One of the major achievements of the Mughal government was the establishment of a universal silver currency, based on the rupee, a coin of 11.6 grams and as close to pure silver content as the metallurgy of the time was capable of attaining. Supplementary coins were the copper Dam and gold Mohur. The values of these coin denominations were nominally fixed at 40 Dams to 1 Rupee, and 8 Rupees to 1 Mohur; however, market forces determined actual exchange rates.

The maximum expansion of the geographical area under direct Mughal rule was achieved during the reign of Aurangzeb Alamgir. By his death in 1707AD, the whole peninsula, with minor exceptions, the whole subcontinent of India owed fealty to the Mughal emperor.

Aurangzeb’s wars, lasting decades, upset the stability and prosperity of the kingdom. The internal dissension and rebellion which resulted brought the eclipse of the empire in succeeding reigns. The Mughal monetary system, especially the silver rupee, supplanted most local currencies throughout India. The number of Mughal mints rose sharply and direct central control declined, so that by the time of the emperor Shah Alam II, many nominally Mughal mints served independent states. The common element in all these coinage issues was the presence of the Mughal emperor’s name and titles on the obverse.  [1] SCWC 1601-1700

Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun

Reign: 937 – 947 AH (1530 – 1540 AD)

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is an Anonymus Falus from the era of Muhammad Humayun, the second ruler of the Mughal Empire.

Obverse:  Hazrat – Zarb Dar Al Mulk Delhi

Reverse: Fi Tareekh 942 AH (coin stuck in 942 AH)

Mint: Delhi

Date: 942 AH (1535 AD) (rev.)

Mintage: –

India (Bengal Presidency): Shah Alam (II) – 1172 – 1220 AH(1759 – 1806 AD) – 1 Pice 1210 AH (1796 AD) KM # 53

India (Bengal Presidency): Shah Alam (II) - 1172 - 1220 AH(1759 - 1806 AD) - 1 Pice 1210 AH (1796 AD ) (obv.)

India (Bengal Presidency): Shah Alam (II) - 1172 - 1220 AH(1759 - 1806 AD) - 1 Pice 1210 AH (1796 AD ) (obv.)

India (Bengal Presidency): Shah Alam (II) - 1172 - 1220 AH(1759 - 1806 AD) - 1 Pice 1210 AH (1796 AD ) (rev.)

India (Bengal Presidency): Shah Alam (II) - 1172 - 1220 AH(1759 - 1806 AD) - 1 Pice 1210 AH (1796 AD ) (rev.)

India (Bengal Presidency): A Brief History

East India Company

(Until 1835)

In 1633 a group of 8 Englishmen obtained a permit to trade in Bengal from the Nawab of Orissa. Shortly thereafter trading factories were established at Balasore and Hariharpur. Although greater trading privileges were granted to the East India Company by the Emperor Shah Jahan in 1634, by 1642 the 2 original factories were abandoned. In 1651, through an English surgeon named Broughton, a permit was acquired to trade at Bengal. Hugli was the first location, followed by Kasimbazar, Balasore and Patna (the last 3 in 1653). Calcutta became of increasing importance in this area and on December 20, 1699 Calcutta was declared a presidency and renamed Fort William.

During these times there were many conflicts with the Nawab, both diplomatic and military, and the ultimate outcome was the intervention of Clive and the restoration of Calcutta as an important trading center. During the earlier trading times in Bengal most of the monies used were imported rupees from the Madras factory. These were primarily of the Arcot type. After Clive’s victory one of the concessions in the peace treaty was the right to make Mughal type coinage. The Nawab gave specific details as to what form the coinage should take.

In 1765 Emperor Shah Alam gave the East India Company possessions in Bengal, Orissa and Bihar. This made the company nominally responsible only to the Emperor. In 1777 the “Frozen Year 19” (of Shah Alam) rupees were made at Calcutta and were continued until 1835. The Arcot rupees were discontinued at Calcutta about 1777. [1] SCWC 1701-1800

Shah Alam (II)

Reign: 1172 – 1220 AH(1759 – 1806 AD)

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 1 Pice from the era of Shah Alam (II), one of the last rulers of the Mughal Dynasty.

Currency Denominations:

  • 3 Pies = 1 Pice (Paisa)

Obverse:  Persian inscription: “Shah Alam Badshah Julus (Regnal Year) 37

Reverse: Coin denomination in Persian, Hindi and Bengali.

Mint: 

Date: 1172/37 AH – 1210 AH (1796 AD)

Mintage: –

Ottoman Empire (Egypt): Abdul Aziz – 1277 – 1293 AH (1861 – 1876 AD) – 20 Para 1277/9 AD (1868 AD) KM # 246

Ottoman Empire (Egypt): Abdul Aziz - 1277 - 1293 AH (1861 - 1876 AD) - 20 Para 1277/9 AD (1868 AD) (obv.)

Ottoman Empire (Egypt): Abdul Aziz - 1277 - 1293 AH (1861 - 1876 AD) - 20 Para 1277/9 AD (1868 AD) (obv.)

Ottoman Empire (Egypt): Abdul Aziz - 1277 - 1293 AH (1861 - 1876 AD) - 20 Para 1277/9 AD (1868 AD) (rev.)

Ottoman Empire (Egypt): Abdul Aziz - 1277 - 1293 AH (1861 - 1876 AD) - 20 Para 1277/9 AD (1868 AD) (rev.)

Ottoman Empire (Egypt): A Brief History

The Arab Republic of Egypt, located on the northeastern corner of Africa, has an area of 385,229 sq. mi. (1,1001,450 sq. km.).

Capital: Cairo. Although Egypt is an almost rainless expanse of desert, its economy is predominantly agricultural. Cotton, rice and petroleum are exported. Other main sources of income are revenues from the Suez Canal, remittances of Egyptian workers abroad and tourism. Egyptian history dates back to about 3000 B.C. when the empire was established by uniting the upper and lower kingdoms.

Following its ‘Golden Age’ (16th to 13th centuries B.C.), Egypt was conquered by Persia (525 B.C.) and Alexander the Great (332 B.C.). The Ptolemies, descended from one of Alexander’s generals, ruled until the suicide of Cleopatra (30 B.C.) when Egypt became the private domain of the Roman emperor, and subsequently part of the Byzantine world. Various Muslim dynasties ruled Egypt from 641 on, including Ayyubid Sultans to 1250 and Mamluks to 1517, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, interrupted by the occupation of Napoleon (1798-1801).

A semi-independent dynasty was founded by Muhammad Ali in 1805 which lasted until 1952. Turkish rule became increasingly casual, permitting Great Britain to inject its influence by purchasing shares in the Suez Canal. British troops occupied Egypt in 1882, becoming the de facto rulers. On Dec. 14, 1914, Egypt was made a protectorate of Britain. British occupation ended on Feb. 28, 1922, when Egypt became a sovereign, independent kingdom. The monarchy was abolished and a republic proclaimed on June 18, 1953. [1] SCWC 1801-1900

Abdul Aziz

Reign: 1277 – 1293 AH (1861 – 1876 AD)

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 20 Para from the era of Sultan Abdul Aziz, the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.

Currency Denominations:

  • 40 Paras = 1 Qirsh (Piastre) (1885-1916)
  • 10 Ushr-al-Qirsh = 1 Piastre

Obverse:  The obverse bears the Toughra (the signature of the Sultan) along with the coin denomination below “20 Para”.  A flower towards the right of the Toughra indicates the coin is from the Cairo mint.

Reverse: Accession date: 1277AH, Regnal Year 9, “Duriba fi Misr” Translated: “Struck in Egypt”

Mint: Cairo, Egypt

Date: 1277/9 AH (1868 AD) (rev.)

Mintage: 3,089,000

Zanzibar: Sultan Barghash Ibn Sa’Id – 1287 – 1306 AH (1870 – 1888 AD) – 1 Pysa 1299 AH (1881 AD) KM # 1

Zanzibar: Sultan Barghash Ibn Sa’Id - 1287 - 1306 AH (1870 - 1888 AD) - 1 Pysa 1299 AH (1881 AD) (obv.)

Zanzibar: Sultan Barghash Ibn Sa’Id - 1287 - 1306 AH (1870 - 1888 AD) - 1 Pysa 1299 AH (1881 AD) (obv.)

Zanzibar: Sultan Barghash Ibn Sa’Id - 1287 - 1306 AH (1870 - 1888 AD) - 1 Pysa 1299 AH (1881 AD) (rev.)

Zanzibar: Sultan Barghash Ibn Sa’Id - 1287 - 1306 AH (1870 - 1888 AD) - 1 Pysa 1299 AH (1881 AD) (rev.)

Zanzibar: A Brief History

The British protectorate of Zanzibar and adjacent small islands, located in the Indian Ocean 22 miles (35 km.) off the coast of Tanganyika, comprised a portion of British East Africa. Zanzibar was also the name of a Sultanate which included the Zanzibar and Kenya protectorates. Zanzibar has an area of 637 sq. mi. (1,651sq. km.). Chief city: Zanzibar. The islands are noted for their cloves, of which Zanzibar is the world’s foremost producer. Zanzibar came under Portuguese control in 1503, was conquered by the Omani Arabs in 1698, became independent of Oman in 1860, and (with Pemba) came under British control in1890. [1] SCWC 1801-1900

Sultan Barghash Ibn Sa’Id

Reign: 1287 – 1306 AH (1870 – 1888 AD)

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 1 Pysa from the era of Sultan Barghash Ibn Sa’Id, Sultan of Zanzibar.

Currency Denominations:

  • 64 Pysa (Pice) = 1 Rupee
  • 136 Pysa = 1 Ryal (to 1908)
  • 100 Cents = 1 Rupee (to 1909)

Obverse: Text within circle, surrounded by wreath. Text: “Sultan Sa’Id / bin Barghash / bin Sultan” with the text surrounding the Sultan’s name “Allah Hifzah” Translated: “May Allah Protect Him“.

Reverse: Scale with date 1299 AH in circle surrounded by wreath.

Mint: Heaton’s Mint, Birmingham, England.

Date: 1299 AH (1881 AD) (rev.)

Mintage: 4,640,000

Afghanistan: Amanullah – 1298 – 1307 SH (1919 – 1929 AD) – 20 Paisas (Abbasi) 1299 SH (1920 AD) KM # 882

Afghanistan: Amanullah – 1298 – 1307 SH (1919 – 1929 AD) – 20 Paisas (Abbasi) 1299 SH (1920 AD) (obv.)

Afghanistan: Amanullah – 1298 – 1307 SH (1919 – 1929 AD) – 20 Paisas (Abbasi) 1299 SH (1920 AD) (obv.)

Afghanistan: Amanullah – 1298 – 1307 SH (1919 – 1929 AD) – 20 Paisas (Abbasi) 1299 SH (1920 AD) (rev.)

Afghanistan: Amanullah – 1298 – 1307 SH (1919 – 1929 AD) – 20 Paisas (Abbasi) 1299 SH (1920 AD) (rev.)

Afghanistan: A Brief History

The Islamic State of Afghanistan, which occupies a mountainous region of Southwest Asia, has an area of 251,825 sq. mi. (652,090 sq. km.) and a population of 25.59 million. Presently, about a fifth of the total population lives in exile as refugees, (mostly in Pakistan). Capital: Kabul. It is bordered by Iran, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and China’s Sinkiang Province. Agriculture and herding are the principal industries; textile mills and cement factories add to the industrial sector. Cotton, wool, fruits, nuts, oil, sheepskin coats and hand-woven carpets are normally exported but foreign trade has been interrupted since 1979.

Because of its strategic position astride the ancient land route to India, Afghanistan (formerly known as Aryana and Khorasan) was invaded by Darius I, Alexander the Great, various Scythian tribes, the White Huns, the Arabs, the Turks, Genghis Khan, Tamerlane, the Mughals, the Persians, and in more recent times by Great Britain. It was a powerful empire under the Kushans, Hephthalites, Ghaznavids and Ghorids. The name Afghanistan, “Land of the Afghans,” came into use in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to describe the realm of the Afghan kings. For a short period, this mountainous region was the easternmost frontier of the Iranian world, with strong cultural influences from the Turks and Mongols to the north and India to the south. Afghanistan’s traditional coinage was much like that of its neighbors Iran and India. There were four major mints: Kabul, Qandahar, Balkh and Herat. The early Durranis also controlled mints in Iran and India. On gold and silver coins, the inscriptions in Persian (called Da r i in Afghanistan) included the name of the mint city and, normally, of the ruler recognized there, but some issues are anonymous. The arrangement of the inscriptions, and frequently the name of the ruler, was different at each mint. Copper coins were controlled locally and usually did not name any ruler. For these reasons the coinage of each mint is treated separately. The relative values of gold, silver, and copper coins were not fixed but were determined in the marketplace.

In 1890 Abdur Rahman had a modern mint set up in Kabul using British minting machinery and the help of British advisors.

The other mints were closed down, except for the issue of local coppers. The new system had 60 paisa equal one rupee; intermediate denominations also had special names. In 1901 the name Afghanistan appeared on coins for the first time. A decimal system, 100 puls to the Afghani, was introduced in 1925. The gold Amani, rated at 20 Afghanis, was a bullion coin.

The national symbol on most coins of the kingdom is a stylized mosque, within which is seen the mihrab, a niche indicating the direction of Mecca, and the Minbar, the pulpit, with a flight of steps leading up to it. Inscriptions in Pashtu were first used under the rebel Habibullah, but did not become standard until 1950.

Until 1919, coins were dated by the lunar Islamic Hejira calendar (AH), often with the king’s regnal year as a second date. The solar Hejira (SH) calendar was introduced in 1919 (1337 AH, 1298 SH). The rebel Habibullah reinstated lunar Hejira dating (AH 1347-50), but the solar calendar was used thereafter. The solar Hejira year begins on the first day of spring, about March 21. Adding 621 to the SH year yields the AD year in which it begins. [1] SCWC 1901-2000

Amir Amanullah Khan Barakzai

Reign: 1298 – 1307 SH (1919 – 1929 AD)

Description:

The coin pictured above is a is a 20 Paisas (Abbasi) from the era of Amir Amanullah Khan from the Barakzai Dynasty.

Currency Denominations:

  • 10 Dinar = 1 Paisa
  • 5 Paise = 1 Shahi
  • 2 Shahi = 1 Sanar
  • 2 Sanar = 1 Abbasi
  • 1-1/2 Abbasi = 1 Qiran
  • 2 Qiran = 1Kabuli Rupee
  • 1 Tilla = 10 Rupees

Obverse: Text within circle, stars surround with “Al-Ghazi”. Text: “Amir Amanullah, 1299 SH’

Reverse: Mosque within 8-pointed star, within circle, stars surrounds.

Mint: Afghanistan

Date: 1299 SH (1920 AD) (obv.)

Mintage: –

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